Cool Constipation images

A few nice constipation images I found:

Autumn ‘s colors of Waco city , Texas……Săc màu của mùa Thu ở thành phố Waco, Texas…..
constipation
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Chụp hình vào ngày 24 tháng 11 năm 2012, tại thành phố Waco, tiểu bang Texas , thuộc miền nam nước Mỹ .

Taken on November 24, 2012 in Hewitt city, Texas state, Southern of America.

Vietnamese named : Sòi trắng; Sòi trứng; Sòi nhuộm; Sòi xanh; Rach; Ô cứu (U kiu); Ô cữu căn bì
Common names : Chinese tallow tree, Florida Aspen, Chicken tree, Gray Popcorn tree, Candleberry tree
Sciientist name : Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.
Synonyms : Triadica sebifera (L.) Small
Family : Euphorbiaceae . Họ Thầu Dầu
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Subfamily:Euphorbioideae
Tribe:Hippomaneae
Subtribe:Hippomaninae
Genus:Triadica
Species:T. sebifera

**** www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=edir&v=Sapium%20sebife…
Tên Khoa học: Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.
Tên tiếng Anh:
Tên tiếng Việt: Sòi trắng; Sòi trứng; sòi nhuộm; sòi xanh; rach; ô cứu (U kiu); ô cữu căn bì
Tên khác: Croton sebirerus L.; Triadica sinensis Lour.

**** agriviet.com/home/archive/index.php/t-44084.html
DÙNG THUỐC NAM TRỊ BỆNH TRONG NUÔI THỦY SẢN
Cây sòi (Sapium sebiferum (L) Roxb)
img153.imageshack.us/img153/3530/sapium.jpg
Dùng lá sòi trị bệnh thối rữa mang, bệnh trắng đầu của cá. Cách dùng: Để phòng bệnh lấy cành bó thành bó nhỏ cho xuống ao. Để trị bệnh cần bón xuống ao với nồng độ 6,0 ppm (6,0 gram cành lá sòi phơi khô/m3 nước). Thường dùng 1 kg cành lá sòi khô (hoặc 4 kg tươi) ngâm vào 20 kg vôi sống 2% trong một đêm, sau đó đun sôi 10 phút, pH trên 12 rồi bón xuống nước.

**** caythuoc.chothuoc24h.com/cay-thuoc/9999/2676
Sòi, Sòi xanh – Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb., thuộc họ Thầu dầu – Euphorbiaceae.

Mô tả: Cây gỗ rụng lá cao 6-15m. Lá mọc so le, hình quả trám, dài 3-7cm, chóp lá thuôn nhọn, cuống lá dài có tuyến. Hoa đơn tính, màu trắng vàng hay vàng, mọc thành bông ở nách lá hoặc đầu cành. Hoa cái nhiều, ở gốc, hoa đực ở trên. Hoa đực có đài hình đầu phân thuỳ hoặc có răng, nhị 2, bao phấn gần hình cầu. Hoa cái có đài hợp, 2-3 thuỳ và nhuỵ 3, bầu hình trứng có 3 ô. Quả hạch hình cầu có 3 hạt.

Cây ra hoa tháng 6-8, quả tháng 10-11.

Bộ phận dùng: Vỏ rễ, vỏ thân, lá, hạt – Cortex Radicis, Cortex et Folium Sapii Sebiferi. Vỏ rễ thường có tên là Ô cữu căn bì

Nơi sống và thu hái: Cây của Ðông Á châu ôn đới và cận nhiệt đới, mọc hoang ở vùng đồi núi. Có khi được trồng làm cây cảnh. Thu hái vỏ rễ và vỏ cây quanh năm, thái nhỏ và phơi khô. Lá thường dùng tươi. Thành phần hoá học: Vỏ rễ chứa xanthoxylin, acid tanic.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Sòi có vị đắng, tính hơi ấm, có độc; có tác dụng sát trùng, giải độc, lợi niệu, thông tiện, tiêu thũng, trục thuỷ.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Thường dùng chữa 1: Phù thũng, giảm niệu, táo bón; 2. Bệnh sán máng, cổ trướng, xơ gan; 3. Viêm gan siêu vi trùng; 4. Ngộ độc nhân ngôn; 5. Rắn độc cắn. Thân và lá dùng chữa viêm mủ da, ngứa lở thấp chẩn, chai cứng. Dùng vỏ rễ 3-6g, lá 9-15g, đun sôi lấy nước uống. Giã lá tươi để đắp ngoài, hoặc nấu nước để rửa.

Ở Vân Nam (Trung Quốc) còn được dùng trị tiểu tiện không thông, viêm ân đạo.

Ðơn thuốc:

1. Phù thũng, Rễ Sòi tươi, lấy màng thứ nhì 15g, đường 15g, đun sôi lấy nước uống.

2. Bệnh sán máng: Lá Sòi 8-30g, sắc uống. Dùng liền trong 20-30 ngày.

3. Phù thũng, cổ trướng, đại tiện không thông, ứ nước hoặc bí đầy, ăn uống không xuôi: Màng rễ Sòi (lớp trắng ở trong), Mộc thông, hạt Cau, mỗi vị 12g, sắc uống.

4. Ngộ độc: Lá Sòi 1 nắm giã nhỏ, chế nước vào, vắt lấy nước cốt uống.

______________________________________________________________

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triadica_sebifera

**** www.floridata.com/ref/s/sapi_seb.cfm : CLICK ON LINK TO READ MORE, PLEASE.
Chinese tallow seed capsules yield a wax (Chinese vegetable tallow) that is used to make soap and candles. An oil is extracted that is used as a lamp fuel and machine lubricant. In parts of the American southeast, decorative wreaths are made by stringing the popcorn-like seeds. Honeybees make a desirable light-colored honey from the flowers.

**** www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sapium+sebiferum ( click on link to read more, please ).

Edible Uses: Oil; Oil.
The wax from the seed is used as a lard substitute or in cacao butter[105, 183]. The seed contains 8.1 – 9.2% protein and 40.5 – 50.7% fat[218].

Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Acrid; Antidote; Depurative; Diuretic; Emetic; Hydrogogue; Laxative; Purgative; Skin; Vesicant.

The leaves and the roots are depurative, diuretic and laxative[4, 147, 178]. A decoction is used in the treatment of oedema, constipation, poisoning by two plants – Polygonum perfoliatum and Tripterygium wilfordii, skin diseases etc[147, 218]. The leaves are particularly useful for treating boils[218]. The seed is antidote, emetic, hydragogue and purgative[218]. In China it is taken internally, which is a rather questionable practice considering its toxic nature[218]. The root bark is diuretic[218]. It is used in the treatment of snake bites and skin ulcers[218]. The juice of the tree (the sap is probably meant here[K]) is acrid and vesicant[240].
Other Uses
Compost; Dye; Fuel; Hair; Incense; Oil; Oil; Soil stabilization; Tannin; Wax; Wood.

The seed is coated with a wax. This wax, which comprises about 24% of the seed[269], can be used to make candles and soap[1, 4, 11, 46, 103, 171]. It has excellent burning quality, and gives an inodorous clear bright flame[269]. The wax is also used for making soap, cloth dressing and fuel[269]. Pure tallow fat is known in commerce as Pi-yu[269]. The wax is separated from the seed by steeping it in hot water and skimming off the wax as it floats to the surface[146, 158]. The wax is solid at temperatures below 40°c[146]. It is said to change grey hair to black[218]. The seed contains about 20% of a drying oil[269]. It is used to make candles and soap[11, 146, 158]. The oil is used in making varnishes and native paints because of its quick-drying properties[269]. It is also used in machine oils and as a crude lamp oil[269]. The pure oil expressed from the inner part of the seeds is known in commerce as Ting-yu[269]. The residual cake, after the oil is expressed, is used as manure, particularly for tobacco fields[269]. The leaves are rich in tannin[178], a black dye can be obtained by boiling them in alum water[103, 146, 158, 269].The plant is used as a soil binder along the sides of roads and canals[269]. The wood is white, even and close grained, light, soft or moderately hard[158, 269]. It is suitable for carving and is also used for making blocks in Chinese printing, furniture making and incense[269]. The wood is light and soft. It is used for fuel[269].

Cultivation details
Succeeds in a sunny position in any well-drained soil[200]. Grows well on canal banks, steep mountain slopes, granite hills and sandy beaches, succeeding in alkaline, saline or acid soils[269]. It is said to thrive in alluvial forests, on low alluvial plains, and on rich leaf-molds, growing best in well-drained clayey-peat soils[269]. Requires the protection of a south or south-west wall when grown in areas at the limits of its hardiness[200]. Favourable climatic conditions are mean air temperatures of 12.5 to 30.1°C, and an annual precipitation from 130 to 370cm[269]. This tree is not reliably hardy in Britain, though it was successfully grown here in the 18th century[11]. It is able to withstand a few degrees of frost, but unripened twigs are particularly susceptible to frost injury[269]. It succeeds outdoors in the milder parts of Britain when grown in a woodland garden[166]. A fast-growing tree[188], it is much cultivated in warm temperate regions for its seeds which are a source of vegetable tallow, a drying oil and protein food[269]. The fruits yield two types of fats – the outer covering of the seeds contains a solid fat with a low iodine value and is known as Chinese Vegetable Tallow whilst the kernels produce a drying oil with high iodine value which is called Stillingia Oil[11, 109, 269]. Many named varietis have been developed in the Orient, especially in Taiwan, for improved oil production[269]. Plants require from 3 – 8 years to bear, but then continue to bear for an average of 70 – 100 years. They attain their full size in 10 – 12 years[269]. Yields of 14 tonnes of seed per hectare, containing 2.6 tonnes of oil and 2.8 tones of tallow have been achieved[269]. This yield could increase with age[269]. The plant has escaped from cultivation in N. America and has become a serious pest there, displacing native vegetation. It apparently produces root secretions that modify soil chemistry and discourage the establishment of native species[274]. Responds well to coppicing[146].

Propagation
Seed – do not cold stratify the seed since this can lead to secondary dormancy. Sown in April in a warm greenhouse, it usually germinates within 4 weeks[113]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Overwinter in a greenhouse for at least their first 2 winters and plant out in late spring. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.

**** www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/sapium_sebiferum…. : CLICK ON LINK TO READ MORE, PLEASE.

Chinese tallow tree is cultivated for its seeds as a source of vegetable tallow, a drying oil and protein food, and as an ornamental. Fruits yield two types of fats: outer covering of seeds contain a solid fat with low iodine value, known as Chinese Vegetable Tallow; kernels produce a drying oil with high iodine value, called Stillingia Oil. Tallow is used for manufacturing candles, a layer of wax being placed over the tallow body to prevent too rapid burning; has excellent burning quality, and gives an inodorous clear bright flame; also used for making soap, cloth dressing and fuel. Pure tallow fat is known in commerce as Pi-yu. Oil is used in making varnishes and native paints because of its quick-drying properties, in machine oils and as a crude lamp oil. Pure oil expressed from the inner part of the seeds is known in commerce as Ting-yu. Oil cakes made from crushed seeds with tallow and oil together is known as Mou-yu. Residual cake, after oil is expressed, is used as manure, particularly for tobacco fields. Wood is white and close-grained, suitable for carving and used for making blocks in Chinese printing; also used for furniture making and incense. Chinese prepare a black dye by boiling leaves in alum water. Tree grows rapidly, developes an attractive crown, and, as leaves turn red in fall, is cultivated as a shade or lawn tree about houses. It is used as a soil binder along roads and canals. Chinese place an insect on the tree to feed; it lays eggs in the seed, making some of the "jumping beans," because of movements of larvae inside.
Folk Medicine

In Chinese medicine, oil is used as purgative and emetic, not as a usual vegetable oil for humans. Overdose of native medicine probably would cause violent sickness and perhaps death. Additionally, Chinese use the plant as an alexeteric, suppurative, and vulnerary, especially for edema and skin ailments. Decoction of the root bark used for dyspepsia, considered tonic. Resin from root bark considered purgative. The latex is an acrid and powerful vesicant.
Chemistry

The fatty acid composition of the oil is: caprylic, 1.50; capric, 1.00; myristic, 0.97; palmitic, 2.80; stearic, 1.00; oleic, 9.40; linoleic, 53.40; and linolenic, 30.00%. A Hong Kong sample contained 26.8% oil, with: capric, traces; palmitic, 7; stearic, 3; 2,4-decadienoic, 5; oleic, 7; linoleic, 24; and linolenic, 54%. Stillingia oil is considered superior to linseed oil in its drying and polymerizing properties, probably due to the presence of 2,4-decadienoic acid. Seed meal, left after the extraction of oil, possesses a high content of protein, and is a valuable feed and fertilizer. It can be processed into a refined flour, containing 75% protein, fit for human consumption. The amino acid composition of the protein is as follows: arginine, 16.6; aspartic acid, 11.7; cistine, 1.3; glycine, 4.9; glutamic acid, 17.3; histidine, 2.9; leucine, 7.4; lycine, 2.6; methionine, 1.6; tyrosine, 3.7; and valine, 7.8%. The vitamin-B content of the flour compares favorably with that of wheat-flour. The flour, supplemented with lysine and methionine, is reported to be superior to wheat-flour. Ethanol extraction of powdered root bark yielded 0.1% phloracetophenone 2,4-dimethylether, and reethanol extraction gave xanthoxylin (C10H12O4). The bark also contains moretenone, moretenol and a new triterpene, 3-epimoretenol. Leaves contain gallic and ellagic acids, isoquercitrin, and tannin (5.5%) (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976).

Chinese Tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum ….Cây Sòi Xanh, Sòi nhuôm ….#3
constipation
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Chụp hình vào ngày 1 tháng 6 năm 2012, tại thành phố Hewitt, tiểu bang Texas , thuộc miền nam nước Mỹ .

Taken on June 1, 2012 in Hewitt city, Texas state, Southern of America.

Vietnamese named : Sòi trắng; Sòi trứng; Sòi nhuộm; Sòi xanh; Rach; Ô cứu (U kiu); Ô cữu căn bì
Common names : Chinese tallow tree, Florida Aspen, Chicken tree, Gray Popcorn tree, Candleberry tree
Sciientist name : Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.
Synonyms : Triadica sebifera (L.) Small
Family : Euphorbiaceae . Họ Thầu Dầu
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Malpighiales
Subfamily:Euphorbioideae
Tribe:Hippomaneae
Subtribe:Hippomaninae
Genus:Triadica
Species:T. sebifera

**** www.botanyvn.com/cnt.asp?param=edir&v=Sapium%20sebife…
Tên Khoa học: Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.
Tên tiếng Anh:
Tên tiếng Việt: Sòi trắng; Sòi trứng; sòi nhuộm; sòi xanh; rach; ô cứu (U kiu); ô cữu căn bì
Tên khác: Croton sebirerus L.; Triadica sinensis Lour.

**** agriviet.com/home/archive/index.php/t-44084.html
DÙNG THUỐC NAM TRỊ BỆNH TRONG NUÔI THỦY SẢN
Cây sòi (Sapium sebiferum (L) Roxb)
img153.imageshack.us/img153/3530/sapium.jpg
Dùng lá sòi trị bệnh thối rữa mang, bệnh trắng đầu của cá. Cách dùng: Để phòng bệnh lấy cành bó thành bó nhỏ cho xuống ao. Để trị bệnh cần bón xuống ao với nồng độ 6,0 ppm (6,0 gram cành lá sòi phơi khô/m3 nước). Thường dùng 1 kg cành lá sòi khô (hoặc 4 kg tươi) ngâm vào 20 kg vôi sống 2% trong một đêm, sau đó đun sôi 10 phút, pH trên 12 rồi bón xuống nước.

**** caythuoc.chothuoc24h.com/cay-thuoc/9999/2676
Sòi, Sòi xanh – Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb., thuộc họ Thầu dầu – Euphorbiaceae.

Mô tả: Cây gỗ rụng lá cao 6-15m. Lá mọc so le, hình quả trám, dài 3-7cm, chóp lá thuôn nhọn, cuống lá dài có tuyến. Hoa đơn tính, màu trắng vàng hay vàng, mọc thành bông ở nách lá hoặc đầu cành. Hoa cái nhiều, ở gốc, hoa đực ở trên. Hoa đực có đài hình đầu phân thuỳ hoặc có răng, nhị 2, bao phấn gần hình cầu. Hoa cái có đài hợp, 2-3 thuỳ và nhuỵ 3, bầu hình trứng có 3 ô. Quả hạch hình cầu có 3 hạt.

Cây ra hoa tháng 6-8, quả tháng 10-11.

Bộ phận dùng: Vỏ rễ, vỏ thân, lá, hạt – Cortex Radicis, Cortex et Folium Sapii Sebiferi. Vỏ rễ thường có tên là Ô cữu căn bì

Nơi sống và thu hái: Cây của Ðông Á châu ôn đới và cận nhiệt đới, mọc hoang ở vùng đồi núi. Có khi được trồng làm cây cảnh. Thu hái vỏ rễ và vỏ cây quanh năm, thái nhỏ và phơi khô. Lá thường dùng tươi. Thành phần hoá học: Vỏ rễ chứa xanthoxylin, acid tanic.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Sòi có vị đắng, tính hơi ấm, có độc; có tác dụng sát trùng, giải độc, lợi niệu, thông tiện, tiêu thũng, trục thuỷ.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Thường dùng chữa 1: Phù thũng, giảm niệu, táo bón; 2. Bệnh sán máng, cổ trướng, xơ gan; 3. Viêm gan siêu vi trùng; 4. Ngộ độc nhân ngôn; 5. Rắn độc cắn. Thân và lá dùng chữa viêm mủ da, ngứa lở thấp chẩn, chai cứng. Dùng vỏ rễ 3-6g, lá 9-15g, đun sôi lấy nước uống. Giã lá tươi để đắp ngoài, hoặc nấu nước để rửa.

Ở Vân Nam (Trung Quốc) còn được dùng trị tiểu tiện không thông, viêm ân đạo.

Ðơn thuốc:

1. Phù thũng, Rễ Sòi tươi, lấy màng thứ nhì 15g, đường 15g, đun sôi lấy nước uống.

2. Bệnh sán máng: Lá Sòi 8-30g, sắc uống. Dùng liền trong 20-30 ngày.

3. Phù thũng, cổ trướng, đại tiện không thông, ứ nước hoặc bí đầy, ăn uống không xuôi: Màng rễ Sòi (lớp trắng ở trong), Mộc thông, hạt Cau, mỗi vị 12g, sắc uống.

4. Ngộ độc: Lá Sòi 1 nắm giã nhỏ, chế nước vào, vắt lấy nước cốt uống.

______________________________________________________________

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triadica_sebifera

**** www.floridata.com/ref/s/sapi_seb.cfm : CLICK ON LINK TO READ MORE, PLEASE.
Chinese tallow seed capsules yield a wax (Chinese vegetable tallow) that is used to make soap and candles. An oil is extracted that is used as a lamp fuel and machine lubricant. In parts of the American southeast, decorative wreaths are made by stringing the popcorn-like seeds. Honeybees make a desirable light-colored honey from the flowers.

**** www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Sapium+sebiferum ( click on link to read more, please ).

Edible Uses: Oil; Oil.
The wax from the seed is used as a lard substitute or in cacao butter[105, 183]. The seed contains 8.1 – 9.2% protein and 40.5 – 50.7% fat[218].

Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Acrid; Antidote; Depurative; Diuretic; Emetic; Hydrogogue; Laxative; Purgative; Skin; Vesicant.

The leaves and the roots are depurative, diuretic and laxative[4, 147, 178]. A decoction is used in the treatment of oedema, constipation, poisoning by two plants – Polygonum perfoliatum and Tripterygium wilfordii, skin diseases etc[147, 218]. The leaves are particularly useful for treating boils[218]. The seed is antidote, emetic, hydragogue and purgative[218]. In China it is taken internally, which is a rather questionable practice considering its toxic nature[218]. The root bark is diuretic[218]. It is used in the treatment of snake bites and skin ulcers[218]. The juice of the tree (the sap is probably meant here[K]) is acrid and vesicant[240].
Other Uses
Compost; Dye; Fuel; Hair; Incense; Oil; Oil; Soil stabilization; Tannin; Wax; Wood.

The seed is coated with a wax. This wax, which comprises about 24% of the seed[269], can be used to make candles and soap[1, 4, 11, 46, 103, 171]. It has excellent burning quality, and gives an inodorous clear bright flame[269]. The wax is also used for making soap, cloth dressing and fuel[269]. Pure tallow fat is known in commerce as Pi-yu[269]. The wax is separated from the seed by steeping it in hot water and skimming off the wax as it floats to the surface[146, 158]. The wax is solid at temperatures below 40°c[146]. It is said to change grey hair to black[218]. The seed contains about 20% of a drying oil[269]. It is used to make candles and soap[11, 146, 158]. The oil is used in making varnishes and native paints because of its quick-drying properties[269]. It is also used in machine oils and as a crude lamp oil[269]. The pure oil expressed from the inner part of the seeds is known in commerce as Ting-yu[269]. The residual cake, after the oil is expressed, is used as manure, particularly for tobacco fields[269]. The leaves are rich in tannin[178], a black dye can be obtained by boiling them in alum water[103, 146, 158, 269].The plant is used as a soil binder along the sides of roads and canals[269]. The wood is white, even and close grained, light, soft or moderately hard[158, 269]. It is suitable for carving and is also used for making blocks in Chinese printing, furniture making and incense[269]. The wood is light and soft. It is used for fuel[269].

Cultivation details
Succeeds in a sunny position in any well-drained soil[200]. Grows well on canal banks, steep mountain slopes, granite hills and sandy beaches, succeeding in alkaline, saline or acid soils[269]. It is said to thrive in alluvial forests, on low alluvial plains, and on rich leaf-molds, growing best in well-drained clayey-peat soils[269]. Requires the protection of a south or south-west wall when grown in areas at the limits of its hardiness[200]. Favourable climatic conditions are mean air temperatures of 12.5 to 30.1°C, and an annual precipitation from 130 to 370cm[269]. This tree is not reliably hardy in Britain, though it was successfully grown here in the 18th century[11]. It is able to withstand a few degrees of frost, but unripened twigs are particularly susceptible to frost injury[269]. It succeeds outdoors in the milder parts of Britain when grown in a woodland garden[166]. A fast-growing tree[188], it is much cultivated in warm temperate regions for its seeds which are a source of vegetable tallow, a drying oil and protein food[269]. The fruits yield two types of fats – the outer covering of the seeds contains a solid fat with a low iodine value and is known as Chinese Vegetable Tallow whilst the kernels produce a drying oil with high iodine value which is called Stillingia Oil[11, 109, 269]. Many named varietis have been developed in the Orient, especially in Taiwan, for improved oil production[269]. Plants require from 3 – 8 years to bear, but then continue to bear for an average of 70 – 100 years. They attain their full size in 10 – 12 years[269]. Yields of 14 tonnes of seed per hectare, containing 2.6 tonnes of oil and 2.8 tones of tallow have been achieved[269]. This yield could increase with age[269]. The plant has escaped from cultivation in N. America and has become a serious pest there, displacing native vegetation. It apparently produces root secretions that modify soil chemistry and discourage the establishment of native species[274]. Responds well to coppicing[146].

Propagation
Seed – do not cold stratify the seed since this can lead to secondary dormancy. Sown in April in a warm greenhouse, it usually germinates within 4 weeks[113]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Overwinter in a greenhouse for at least their first 2 winters and plant out in late spring. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.

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Chinese tallow tree is cultivated for its seeds as a source of vegetable tallow, a drying oil and protein food, and as an ornamental. Fruits yield two types of fats: outer covering of seeds contain a solid fat with low iodine value, known as Chinese Vegetable Tallow; kernels produce a drying oil with high iodine value, called Stillingia Oil. Tallow is used for manufacturing candles, a layer of wax being placed over the tallow body to prevent too rapid burning; has excellent burning quality, and gives an inodorous clear bright flame; also used for making soap, cloth dressing and fuel. Pure tallow fat is known in commerce as Pi-yu. Oil is used in making varnishes and native paints because of its quick-drying properties, in machine oils and as a crude lamp oil. Pure oil expressed from the inner part of the seeds is known in commerce as Ting-yu. Oil cakes made from crushed seeds with tallow and oil together is known as Mou-yu. Residual cake, after oil is expressed, is used as manure, particularly for tobacco fields. Wood is white and close-grained, suitable for carving and used for making blocks in Chinese printing; also used for furniture making and incense. Chinese prepare a black dye by boiling leaves in alum water. Tree grows rapidly, developes an attractive crown, and, as leaves turn red in fall, is cultivated as a shade or lawn tree about houses. It is used as a soil binder along roads and canals. Chinese place an insect on the tree to feed; it lays eggs in the seed, making some of the "jumping beans," because of movements of larvae inside.
Folk Medicine

In Chinese medicine, oil is used as purgative and emetic, not as a usual vegetable oil for humans. Overdose of native medicine probably would cause violent sickness and perhaps death. Additionally, Chinese use the plant as an alexeteric, suppurative, and vulnerary, especially for edema and skin ailments. Decoction of the root bark used for dyspepsia, considered tonic. Resin from root bark considered purgative. The latex is an acrid and powerful vesicant.
Chemistry

The fatty acid composition of the oil is: caprylic, 1.50; capric, 1.00; myristic, 0.97; palmitic, 2.80; stearic, 1.00; oleic, 9.40; linoleic, 53.40; and linolenic, 30.00%. A Hong Kong sample contained 26.8% oil, with: capric, traces; palmitic, 7; stearic, 3; 2,4-decadienoic, 5; oleic, 7; linoleic, 24; and linolenic, 54%. Stillingia oil is considered superior to linseed oil in its drying and polymerizing properties, probably due to the presence of 2,4-decadienoic acid. Seed meal, left after the extraction of oil, possesses a high content of protein, and is a valuable feed and fertilizer. It can be processed into a refined flour, containing 75% protein, fit for human consumption. The amino acid composition of the protein is as follows: arginine, 16.6; aspartic acid, 11.7; cistine, 1.3; glycine, 4.9; glutamic acid, 17.3; histidine, 2.9; leucine, 7.4; lycine, 2.6; methionine, 1.6; tyrosine, 3.7; and valine, 7.8%. The vitamin-B content of the flour compares favorably with that of wheat-flour. The flour, supplemented with lysine and methionine, is reported to be superior to wheat-flour. Ethanol extraction of powdered root bark yielded 0.1% phloracetophenone 2,4-dimethylether, and reethanol extraction gave xanthoxylin (C10H12O4). The bark also contains moretenone, moretenol and a new triterpene, 3-epimoretenol. Leaves contain gallic and ellagic acids, isoquercitrin, and tannin (5.5%) (C.S.I.R., 1948–1976).

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